सीएसआईआर-केंद्रीय काँच एवं सिरामिक अनुसंधान संस्थान

CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute

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सीएसआईआर-केंद्रीय काँच एवं सिरामिक अनुसंधान संस्थान

CSIR-Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute

Glass

Overview

GLASS DIVISION has been serving the country with a mandate to develop specialty glasses for civil and advance technology applications as well as extending services to country’s glass industry in lab scale trial glass meltings, testing and quality assurance of their products in line with the mission and vision of this institute.

 For decades, Glass Division has developed various application oriented specialty glasses and glass-ceramics namely colored signal glasses, radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glasses, filter glasses, new generation lanthanum bearing optical glasses, rare-earth doped luminescent glasses, micronutrient glass fertilizers, graded refractive index (GRIN) glasses, fullerene (C60)/CNT doped glasses, tellurite glasses, fluorophosphate glasses, transparent nanocrystalline glass-ceramics, machineable glass-ceramics, honey-comb cordierite glass-ceramics, lead-free environmentally friendly, low cost glass powders and pastes for new generation of Plasma Display Panels (PDP) etc.

 Currently, the Division is engaged in various R & D activities such as chalcogenide based non-oxide glasses for IR optics and thermal imaging, rare earth doped glasses & glass-ceramics, Mid-Infrared transparent oxide glasses and transparent glass thinfilms for photonics, optoelectronics and integrated devices, phosphor-in-glass (PIG) for white LEDs, Ionic conducting glasses as electrolytes for solid state batteries, thermally stable and recyclable sealiant glasses for SOFC, bioactive glasses and glass-ceramics with antibacterial property etc. Glass division is also involved in the indigenous development of Nd-doped phosphate laser glass for high power laser applications and optical glasses for space optics to meet the requirement of strategic sectors.

Areas of Research

  • Nd3+ doped Phosphate glasses
  • Optical glasses
  • Chalcogenide glasses for infrared optics and IR photonic devices
  • Rare earth doped glass and glass-Ceramics for Photonic applications
  • NASICON based glass electrolytes for solid state battery applications
  • MIR transparent non-conventional oxide glass and glass ceramics for MIR photonics
  • Bioactive glass and glass ceramics with antibacterial properties
  • Crystallization kinetics of glasses
  • Transparent glass thinfilms for planar waveguide and integrated photonics
  • Phosphors-in-glass for white light LED
  • Antimicrobial coatings on glass
  • Thermally cyclable sealant glasses for SOFC applications

Technology Developed

  • Process technology for production of Radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass. Manufacturing process technology was transferred to the industry.
  • Lead-free environment-friendly glass powders and pastes for Plasma Display Panel (PDP). Industrial collaborator: M/s Samtel Color Ltd., Ghaziabad, UP.
  • Energy efficient soda lime silicate glass compositions using borax pentahydrate.
  • Novel soda lime silicate glass composition comprising colemanite.
  • Thermally cyclable glass sealant composition for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell.
  • Technology for As-Se based chalcogenide glass manufacturing and polishing

 

Projects

Ongoing Projects

Sl. No. Title of the Project Duration Source of Funding Principal Investigator Co-PI (s)
1. Development of process technology and setting up of a facility for production and supply of specialty glass and glass ceramic for advanced application. 2005 – 2013 Govt. Dr. Ranjan Sen Dr. Basudeb Karmakar,
Mr. Sitendu Mondal,
Dr. (Mrs) Kalyandurg Annapurna
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
Dr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
Dr. Kaushik Biswas
Mr A K Chakraborty
Mr. S. Sen
2.

Leadership in Specialty Glass and Optical Fiber Technologies:

a) New generation Chalcogenide glasses for infrared optic and photonic devices

b) Rare-earth doped glasses for Fluorescence cooling

c) Energy efficient cost-effective method for preparation of specialty glass by microwave heating

2012-2017 Govt. Dr. Ranjan Sen (Coordinator)
Dr. B Karmakar
Dr. (Mrs) Kalyandurg Annapurna
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
Dr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
Dr. Kaushik Biswas
Mr S. Balaji
Mr. S. Sen
3. Development of semiconductor and rare earth doped glass nano-composites for solid state laser application (BRNS/DAE) 2011-2015 Govt. Dr. B Karmakar Dr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
4. Study of crystallization kinetics and development of multifunctional glass-ceramics for advanced applications Govt. Dr. K Biswas Dr. (Mrs) Kalyandurg Annapurna
5. Advanced composite armour for protection against medium caliber threats(Glass Activity) 2012-2017 Govt. Dr A R Molla Dr P. Das
6. Development of High-Efficiency Si-Photovoltaic Cell with Novel Glass/Glass-Ceramic Layers (NW P 55) 2010 –2017 Govt. Dr. R Sen Dr. B. Karmakar
Dr. K. Annapurna
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
Dr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
Dr. Kaushik Biswas
Mr S. Balaji
Mr P Rama Rao

Completed Projects

Sl. No. Title of the Project Duration Source of Funding Principal Investigator Co-PI (s)
1. Development of rare earth doped nanocrystalline nonlinear optical glass–ceramics. 2007- 2010 Govt. Dr. B. Karmakar Dr. K Annapurna
Mr. Anal Tarafder
2. Development of transparent sealing glasses 2009-2010 Private Dr. B. Karmakar Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
3. Development and Demonstration of 500W SOFC Stack with Hydrogen as Fuel and Testing of Short Stack Synthetic Gas (Glass Activity) 2011-2014 Govt. Dr. B. Karmakar Mr. Anal Tarafder
Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
4. Consultancy Services for Facility Creation and Production of As-S-I Glass at M/s Lexus Softmac, Surat 2011-2012 Private Dr. B. Karmakar Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
5. Development of Rare Earth doped Nanocrystalline Nonlinear Optical Glass-Ceramics for Self-Frequency Doubled Laser Devices 2007-2010 Govt. Dr. B. Karmakar Dr. Kalyandurg Annapurna
Mr. Anal Tarafder
6. Development of environmental-friendly lead-free cost-effective glass powders and pastes for plasma display panel (PDP) 2007-2010 Govt. Dr. B. Karmakar Mr. Anal Tarafder
7. Investigation on the incorporation of Borax pentahydrate and colemanite in different glasses 2010-2012 Private Dr. R. Sen Dr. B. Karmakar
Dr. K. Annapurna
Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
Mr. Anal Tarafder
Dr. Kaushik Biswas
8. High strength glass ceramic for special applications” one of the module of CSIR network project on “Non-oxide ceramic based materials for special applications. 2009-2012 Govt. Dr. S. Biswas Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
9. Development of specialty glasses and glass ceramic for advanced application. 1995-2004 Govt. Dr. R. N. Dwivedi Dr. P. Kundu
Mr. A.K. Chaudhuri
Dr. Basudeb Karmakar
Dr. Anil Kumar
Dr. (Mrs) Kalyandurg Annapurna
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
10. Upscaling of facilities, fabrication and supply of of radiophotoluminescent (RPL) glass detector for dosimeter 1994 – 1996 Govt. Dr. P. Kundu Dr. R. N. Dwivedi
Mr. A. K. Chaudhuri
Dr. B. Karmakar
11. Development of MACOR glass-ceramics 1999-2001 Govt. Dr. P. Kundu Dr. R. N. Dwivedi
Dr. B. Karmakar
12. Development of lanthnum bearing optical glasses equivalent to Schott: LaK9, LaK 21, LaFN7 and LaFN 21 1998-2001 Govt. Dr. P. Kundu Dr. R. N. Dwivedi
Dr. A. K. Nandi
Dr. B. Karmakar
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
Mr. Atiar Rahaman Molla
13. Development and production of eye-safe glass filters 1998 – 2000 Govt. Dr. R. N. Dwivedi Dr. B. Karmakar
Dr. K. Annapurna
Mr. Ashis Kumar Mandal
14. Investigation on self frequency conversion potentialities of Ln3+ (Ln= Nd, Er, Yb) doped certain borate glass ceramic. 2003-2005 Govt. Dr. K. Annapurna
15. Development of lead free environmentally friendly, cost effective glass powders and pastes for plasma display panel (PDP)” under “Development of next generation plasma display panel technology and 50″ high definition (HD) TV prototype 2007-2010 Govt. Dr. B. Karmakar Dr. K. Annapurna
Mr. Anal Tarafder
16. Development of Glass-Fullerene composites for Photodiode and Photovoltaic Cells 2006-2009 Govt. Dr. R Debnath Mr. S. Balaji
17. Development of rare earth / nano particles dispersed Tellurite glasses for use as medium for IR to visible Up-conversion and IR sensing 2008-09 Govt. Dr. R Debnath Mr. S. Balaji

Consultancy/Service Provided to the Industries:

  • M/s Saint Gobain Glass India Ltd, Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu
  • M/s Hindustan National Glass & Industries Ltd, West Bengal
  • M/s GOA Glass, Goa.
  • M/s Samtel Color Ltd., Ghaziabad, U.P.
  • M/s Innovative Material Technologies Ltd., Jaipur
  • M/s Lensel Optics, Pune
  • M/s Gold Plus Glass Industry limited, New Delhi
  • M/s Gujarat Guardian Limited, Gujarat
  • M/s Asahi India Glass Limited, India

Divisional Facilities

Architectural Glass Research &Testing Facility (AGRT):

A joint initiative of CSIR-CGCRI and Glazing Society of India (GSI) for testing of energy performance of architectural glass, glazing systems

  • Energy Performance testing of Architectural Glass and DGU.
  • Float glass testing as per IS 14900:2018
  • Safety and Structural Performance testing of Architectural Glass

Energy Performance Testing:

  • Solar Direct Transmittance
  • Solar Direct Reflectance (External)
  • Light Direct Reflectance (Internal)
  • UV Transmittance
  • Shading Co-efficient (SC)
  • Emissivity & U Value
  • Solar Factor (SHGC)
  • Light Direct Reflectance (External)
  • Light Direct Transmittance,
  • Solar Direct Reflectance (Internal)

Float glass testing as per standard IS 14900: 2018

  • UV test to identify the tin side of float glass
  • Determination of visual light transmittance

 Humidity controlled laboratory for special glass melting

Salient features:

  • Maximum melting Temperature: 1500oC
  • Furnace Type: Raising hearth for glass melting and box type muffle furnace for annealing and heat treatment.
  • Control: PID (Eurotherm)
  • Working Humidity (minimum): 20 % RH

 Glass melting furnaces

 Salient features:

  • Maximum Temperature: 1700oC
  • Furnace Type: Raising hearth for glass melting and box type muffle furnace for annealing and heat treatment.
  • Control: PID (Eurotherm)

 

 

High Temperature Observation Furnace
(Make: M/s Glass Service Inc., Czech Republic; Model: GPI system-XP/D)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Furnace Tempmax. : 1600oC
  • High temp observation: Image analyser with digital camera
  • Capabilities : can capture the complete course of batch melting and refining process
  • Behavior of single bubble during glass melting
  • Bubble growth and shrinkage
  • The glass forming process
  • Reboiling temperature, the dissolution of solid bodies in glass melt
  • Measurement of surface tension

 

 

Microwave furnace 1600oC
(M/S SAIREM, France)

 

 

 Salient features:
Processing chamber: 304 stainless steel, cavity size of 427x427x488 mm
Temperature measurement: Infrared Pyrometer (350-1600oC)

  • MW output power: 0.6 to 6 kW, multimode microwave furnace
  • Frequency: 2.45 GHz
  • Atmosphere of operation: Air/ inert/ reducing ( 5% H2 with N2)

 

 

Rocking Furnace
(Make: Deltech, USA)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Max temperature: 1000oC
  • Rocking about 45 degree in both ways
  • Equipped with Auto quenching mechanism

 

 

Planar Magnetron DC Sputtering Unit
(Make: Hind High Vaccum Co.Pvt.Ltd, Bangalore, India; Model: 12″ MSPT)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • High Vaccum Coating Unit for metal Contacts.

 

 

Interferometer
(Make: M/s Zygo corporation, USA; Model: GPI system-XP/D)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Measurement : Flatness and bulk optic homogeneity
  • Test beam : 4 inch (102 mm) to 6 inch (152 mm)
  • Accuracy : up to 10-6 homogeneity
  • Resolution : better than l/8,000
  • Samples : size -10 mm -6″ flats/bulk 

 

 

Polarimeter
(Make: M/s Strainoptics Inc., USA; Model: DIAS-1600)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Equipped with : Digital image analysis system with software
  • Measurement : Residual stress or Retardation
  • Range : -140 to 140 nm/mm in H.S mode || 0 to 285 nm/mm in STD mode
  • Viewing area : 75 mm
  • Samples : Transparent solids (transparency above 50 %)

 

 

Prism coupler
(Make: M/s Metricon Corporation, USA; Model: 2010/M)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Equipped with five lasers : 473,532,633,1064 and 1550nm
    (as light sources)
  • RI Measurement range : 1 – 3.1
  • Accuracy : 0.0001
  • Capable of measuring waveguide loss for 633 – 1600 nm
  • Samples : solids (thin films, bulk plates)

 

 

UV-Vis-NIR Fluorescence Spectrophotometer
(Make: M/s Photon Technology International; Model: custom configuration)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Wavelength range – Ex : 200-1000nm || Em : 200-2540nm
  • Lifetime range : in microseconds to milliseconds
  • Samples : solids (plates, powders etc.) and liquids

 

 

Raman Spectrometer
(Make: HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France; Model: Lab Ram HR 800 EV)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Range: 50 – 3000 cm-1
  • Excitation source: 785 nm diode laser and 480 nm Argon ion laser
  • Equipped with LINKAM temperature controller (-150oC to 600oC)
  • Samples: Bulk and Powders

 

 

UV-Vis-NIR Spectrometer
(Make: Perkin Elmer, USA; Model: LAMDA 950)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Wavelength range: 200 to 3200 nm
  • Spectral mode: Absorbance, Transmittance and Reflectance (Specular and Diffuse)
  • Equipped with 150 mm Integrating Sphere for diffuse Reflectance (250 to 2500 nm)
  • Samples: Solids, Powders, films and Liquids 

 

 

FTIR Spectrometer
(Make: Perkin Elmer, USA; Model: Frontier FT-IR/FIR Spectrometer)

 

 

Salient features:

  • Range: 30 – 700 cm-1 (FIR region); 400 – 4000 cm-1 (MIR region)
  • Windows: KBr for MIR and Polyethylene for FIR region
  • Samples: Bulk, Powder (Using KBr binder)
  • Spectral mode: Absorbance, Transmittance and Reflectance

 

 

Simultaneous Thermal Analysis (DSC, DTA, TGA)
(Make: NETZSCH, Germany, Model: Jupiter)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Temp. Range: RT- 1650oC
  • Temp. Accuracy: 0.5oC
  • Windows based Thermal Analysis software: Proteus 6
  • Measurement Mode: TG/DTA and TG/DSC with sensor based technology
  • Equipped with Robotic arm for Auto Sample loading

 

Micro Hardness Tester
(Make: Clemex CMT, Canada; Model: MMT-X7)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Computer control micro-hardness tester
  • Test method: Knoop and Vickers  

 

Optical microscopes
(Make: Olympus Japan; Model: BX51)

 

 

 Salient features:

  • Equipped with Objective Lenses: 5X, 10X, 20X, 50X and 100X

Technical/Support Staff

List of technical staff members in GSTS

Name Designation Expertise

Mr. Ranjan Chakraborty
Principal Technical Officer Furnace design, construction, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance. Design of Platinum wares for glass melting, mechanical light machineries, other technical jobs. Procurement of furnaces (resistance heating- raising hearth, muffle, vacuum; induction heating) and allied machineries for specialty glass production and processing.

Mr. Rana Dasgupta
Principal Technical Officer Procurement, installation, commissioning and maintenance of mechanical light machineries, glass melting furnaces like muffle and rocking, glove box and vacuum system. Batch preparation including set up of chalcogenide glass melting facility. Silica glass ampoule joining and sealing under high vacuum using oxy-hydrogen torch. Technical supervision, operation of pilot plant which includes the operation of induction and oil fired furnaces relating to special glass melting and casting. Procurement of furnace and allied machineries for glass production and processing.

Mr. Biswarup Das
Senior Technical Officer (1) Operation and installation of various types of furnaces. Operation of Induction furnace for specialty glasses production and operation of microwave furnace for glass melting. Glass sample production related activities. Procurement of utilities and consumables related to ongoing project activities.

Mr. Pratik Sarkar
Technical Officer Operation of induction furnace for specialty glass production. Operation and maintenance of rocking furnaces and batch preparation in glove box for chalcogenide glass facility. Installation and commissioning of light machineries. Assisting in silica glass ampoule joining and sealing under high vacuum using oxy-hydrogen torch and other related technical jobs. Electrical maintenance of furnaces and related machinery.

Mr. Amar Ghorui
Technician (2) Operation and maintenance of special type cutting, milling, lapping and polishing machines for specialty glass processing, operation and maintenance of distilled water plant and other technical jobs. Testing of glass by using Interferometer.

Reaj Hossain
Technician. (1) Operation and maintenance of different types of furnaces, and machineries of specialty glass plant. Installation and commissioning of various furnaces of different project, operation of batch production unit of specialty glass plant. Operation of micro-hardness testing instrument for testing of hardness for different glass samples and other materials.

 

Scholars/Students

List of Scholars / Students

Name Status Project Supervisor

Mr. Anirban Chakraborty
Junior Research Fellow CSIR-UGC NET Dr. A. R. Molla

Mr. Sakthi Prasad S
GATE-SRF AcSIR Integrated M.Tech Ph.D. Student Dr. K. Biswas

Mr. Sultan Khan
Project-JRF GAP0158 Dr. K. Annapurna

 

Contact

Dr. Kalyandurg Annapurna
Senior Principal Scientist & Head
Ph: 033-23223344
Email: annapurnak@cgcri.res.in

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